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J.A.L. Waddell — INDEX — Bridge Engineering |

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## TT-beams, reinforced-concrete, 806, 836, 961 moments of inertia of, 841 Tables for designing and detailing, accuracy of calculations, 1377 bars, reinforcing, weights and areas, of 799 concrete, coefficient of elasticity, 959 unit stresses, 958 weights and areas of bars, 799 cost data, material delivered at bridge site, 1359 material in one cu. yd. concrete, 1356 material in place, 1355, 1360 Dun drainage table, 1112 engine diagram, Class 50 loading, 163 foundations, arch bridges, concrete, piers and abutments, 1339 cylinder piers, bracing, 1056 highway, 1055 roof thickness, pneumatic caisson,working chamber, 1049 safe loads, 966 machinery, gears, factor of strength gears, pitch diameter, 314-321 hand brakes, value of λ for, 1705 unit stresses, 1710 wire ropes, allowable variation in fabricated length, 1719 bending stresses in, 311 properties of, 310 weight of, 310 plate-girder flanges, area and weights of cover-plates, 426 centre of gravity, 424, 425, 427 make-up, no cover-plates, 430 make-up with cover-plates, 423 unsupported length, 431 plate-girders, spacing of stiffeners for, 1670 radii of gyration, approximate, 504 reinforced-concrete. rivet holes deducted from built-up members, 512 roller shoes, dimension of, 457 stresses in trusses, coefficients for chords of lateral system, 177 diagonals of lateral system, 176 live-load reactions, 169 Pratt trusses, 171 triangular or Warren trusses, 172-174 swing bridges, ratio of uplift to dead load, 1650 ties, railway, allowable span lengths, 360 sizes for various loadings and span lengths, 359 timber, unit stresses for, 776 trusses, spacing for railway deck bridges, 1638 weights, formulae for, 1287 unit stresses, bearing on carbon steel pins, 323 bending on carbon and nickel steel pins, 324 compression for carbon steel, 322, 323 concrete, 958 coefficient of elasticity, 959 strengths of mixtures, 957 increases in intensities for combinations of loadings, 960 shear and bearing values for carbon steel rivets, 325 waterways required for drainage areas, 1112 weights of reinforcing rods, 799 Tacoma City Waterway Vertical Lift Bridge, 734, 735 Talbot, A. N., 836, 857, 858, 860 formula for discharge area, 1113 precipitation formula, 1118 Tap-bolts, 1731 Tapes, steel, 1786 temperature effect on, 1457 testing of, 1457 triangulation, 1456 Targets, 1467 Tar paper for plank floors, 368 Tees, 48 Tehama Lift Bridge, 728 Telescoping connections, 508 Telescoping of cylinder piers, 1026 Temperature, changes in reinforced-concrete bridges, 957 effects, 1654 reinforced-concrete, 212 arches, 864 tapes, 1457 stresses, 210 hingeless and two-hinged arches, 212 reinforced-concrete bridges, 870-872, 882, 957 Templates [or] 1422 Templets reaming to, 334 Temporary bridge, 1748 Temporary lay-out for East Omaha Bridge, 1073 Temporary omission of cantilever brackets, 1073 Tenders, 1879, 1880 weights of locomotive, 100 withdrawal of, 1881 Tension-chord joint, designing of, 527 Tension lap-splice, designing of, 512-515, 517 Tension members. net section of, 295-298, 1658 Tension straps, 380 Terms, meaning of, 1882 Testimony, expert, 1624, 1625 Tests, asphalt, 1809, 1818 brick, 1826, 1831 broken stone, 1470 concrete, 946, 1468 eye-bars, full-sized, 1775 foundations, 1518 full-sized built members or details, 1776 hardness of concrete, 953 impact, 121-123, 1518 materials in existing bridges, 1516, 1517 methods of, 1772 old masonry, 1518 old timber, 1518 paving, 1818, 1823 percentage of voids, 1467, 1468 piles, 1009 rivets, 1432 spans, 1518 specimens, 1773 steel, 1772-1777 number of test-pieces, 1774 steel tapes, 1457 Thatcher, Edwin, 28, 258, 1065 formula for columns, 258 Thebes Bridge, 569, 598, 1067, 1156 Theorem of four moments, 215 Theorem of three moments, 215 Theory of stresses, origin of, 13 Thickening of webs, 333 Thickness of concrete arch ribs, equation for, 867 Thickness of metal, minimum, 1661, 1680 Thickness of web-plates of compression-members, 1677 Third coat of paint, 766 Thompson River (B. C.) Bridges, 577, 578 Threads, 1785 Three-hinged arches, 626, 627, 636 Three moments, theorem of, 215 Three-truss bridges, 484 Through plate-girder spans, 465 laterals for, 394 ties supported on bottom flange, 353 Through truss spans, weights of metal in, 1223-1225 Thrust angles for cantilever beams, 380, 400 Thrust castings (centring castings), 1723 Thrust of earth, 1034 Thrust of trains, 277, 400, 541 bracing to resist, 1677 detailing for, 283 Thurlow Street Bridge, design for, Vancouver, B. C., 1175 Tidal action, utilization of, 1510 Tidewater Railway formula, 1113 Tie plates, 329, 331, 362, 1634 A. R. E. A. recommendations, 362 for truss members, 1678 Ties, 1633 bevelled, 360 boring for spikes, 362 bottom flanges of through girders, 353 concrete, 363 crowning of roadways, 372, 373 curves, 360 dapping, 359 inspection, 1469 lengths, 361 manufactured, 363 on parapets, 361 quality of timbers, 361 refuge bays, 361 shear in, 302 shimming, 360 shims on floor-beams, 361 spacing, 360 treatment, 361 Tilting of car, 148 Timber, 52, 1804 arch bridge over the Danube River, 10 beams, figuring of, shear, 302 bridges, longest span, 12 caissons, 988 construction in general, 1840 creosoted, 775 crib for draw protection, 780 cribs and caissons, 1048 floors, 365, 366, 1633, 1634, 1635 hand-rails, 383 inspection, 1450, 1453, 1469, 1470 piers, 1026 pile piers, 1057 portions of bridges, 1632 preservation of, 1805 resistance to moisture of, 772 shear, longitudinal, in beams, 302 shrinkage of, 772 sidewalks, 1836 splicing of, 772 stringers, 774 swelling of, 773 testing old, 1518 track, quality of, 361 treated, 775 for floors, 366 treatment of, 361 approaches, 1866 origin of, 21 unit stresses for, 263, 1046, 1047, 1656 weights of, 95 Time cards, 1405, 1406, 1407 Time considerations as affecting layout, 1215 Time estimates, 1363 Time of completion, 1875 Time-records, calculations, 1407 office drawings, 1408 shop drawings, 1409 "Tin" bridges, 1533 Tin plate, 50 Titanium in steel, 86 effect of, 93 in vanadium steel, 85 Titles for drawings, 1381 Toch Brothers' paints, 771 Toe walls, designing of, 1038 Toggles for end lifts of swing spans, 1718 Toledo, (Ohio) Bridge over Maumee River, 980 Tomlinson, Joseph, 607 Top chords. curvature, 479, 480, 487, 488, 1176 examples, 480 span length to change from parallel chords, 479 skew spans, 487 heating of, 212 Top flange bracing, 395 Topographical survey, 1091 Tops of pier bases, elevations of, 1051 Tops of viaduct columns, 339 Torsion, 255 on members, 272 Tower Bridge, London, 701, 1164 Tower sheaves, 1720 bearing connections, 1789 journal-bearings, 1722 shafts, 1721 Towers, anchoring, 210 bracing, 539 columns, batter for, 540 vertical lift spans, cambering of, 762-764 viaducts, 329 Tracing cloth, 1387 Tracing file, index for, 1410 Tracings, filing of, 1396, 1409, 1410 Track, adjustment of, for curvature, 138 breaking, 357 crowning of roadways, 372, 373 curvature, clearance diagrams for, 147 effects of, 132 on chords, 145 on deck spans, 144 on floor-beams, 141 equalizing stresses for, 146 driver for piles, 1015 elevation, floors for, 348, 349 fanning of, 537 gauge, 355 humps, 1212 protection piers, 364 rails and their connections. refuge bays, 361 rerailing frogs, 364 sags, 1212 spacing, 355, 1639 spreading of, 537 street railroads, superelevation, 355 swing spans, 1713, 1716 tie-plates. ties. timber, quality of, 361 vertical curves, 356 walkways, 361 Traction bracing, 391, 1677 Traction engine, 108 weights of, 118 Traction frames, 209 Traction loads, 149, 156, 157, 1653 reinforced-concrete bridges, 956 trestle towers, effect of, 157 Traffic, classes of, 341 falsework for carrying, 1849 maintenance of, 1508, 1752 Trail Bridge over the Columbia River, B. C., 736, 1026 Train, falsework for carrying, 1849 loads, 34 service, frequency of, 1508 speed of, 133 Train sheds, arches for, 618 cantilevers for, 569 Training dykes, 1060 Tramways for construction, 999 direct measurements from, 1466 author's proposed improvements in, Transferred load, 1652 Transformation formula for weights of bridges, 1276 Transportation methods, 34 Transportation over Purchasers' lines, 1754 author's proposed improvements in, 674 Transverse lateral strut connections, 293 Transverse loads, bending due to, 205 Trap box, use of, 978 Traveler, 1502 Traverse lines, 1147 Treadwell, Lee, 1463 Treated timber, 775 for floors, 366 Treatment of employees, 1607 Treatment of track timber, 361 Tredgold, Thomas, 14 Trémie, use of, 978 Trestles, 534 anchoring of towers, 210 approaches, 1866 bents, intermediate columns in, 541 columns, stresses in, 1659 combination of stresses, 250 costs of, 777 curves, sharp, 540 definition, 534 designing, 251 details, 1683, 1684 double-track railway, weights of metal in, 1266-1268 economic layouts, 1259, 1270 economics of, 1189 electric railways, weights of metal in, 1269 guard rails, 774 highway, 1644 inspection, 1450 laying out, 537 location of expansion points, 539 pedestals, 542 pile, 773 railway, 1643 origin, 27 reinforced-concrete, 536 economic span lengths, 1327 single-track railway, weights of metal in, 1257-1263 sliding joints, 539 steel, 536 economic span lengths, 1259, 1270 timber, origin, 21 towers, bracing, 539 connecting of by girders, 538, 539 effect of traction loading upon, 157 weights. Triangular-lattice truss, 474, 475 Triangular trusses, 24, 470, 471 stress coefficients, 172-174 Triangulation, 1456 checking, 1462 correction of angles, 1461 hubs, 1458, 1459 ideal system, 1459 locating piers, 1464 records, 1461 Trolley poles, 384-386 Trolleys for lift spans, 1707 Troubles in bridge maintenance, 1523 Trough plates, 47 Trough sections, milling of, 333 Troweling, 1023 Trumbull, Earl, 22 Truncated cones of piers, 1300 Trunnion type of bascules, 701 Truss depths, economic, 1184 excessive, 1176 Trusses and truss bridges, 468 batten plates, 505 chords. chords of lateral systems, 175 curved in plan, 1071 curved top chords, 479, 480, 487, 488 deflection, 238 depths for cantilever bridges, 589 description, 489 diagonals. diagonals of lateral systems, 176, 177 diaphragms. elements, 489 end post. equivalent live loads, 168 formulae for weights, 1281 gravity axes, 491 gusset-plates. hangers. hybrid, 482 lacing, 285-292, 503-505, 1678, 1679 lateral connections, 503, 527, 532 members (pin-connected trusses), 526-531 bottom chord, 527 bottom lateral connections, 527 built, 526 diagonals, 527 pin-packing, 527-529 riveted connections, 527 web-plates, 527-529 members (riveted trusses), 490 angles for box sections, 498, 499 building up, 500-503 central diaphragms, 498 channel sections, 495, 496, 502 rolled, 495 depth, 494 details at joints, 518 approximate radii gyration (table), 504 net section (table), 512 point of contraflexure (diagram), 298 diaphragms, 498, 506, 507, 531 four-angle box section, laced, 498 lacing. lateral connections, 503 multiple punching, 503 arrangement of angles, 492, 493 deck spans, 492 through spans, 493 open-web riveted girders, 490, 491 typical, 490 top chord and end post, 498-500 angles, 499 box-section, 499 centre of gravity, equality in two directions, 499 radius of gyration, approximate, 504 typical sections, 490 web-plates, 496-498 full depth, 496 number, 497 Trusses and truss bridges, multiple punching, 503 number of trusses per span, 483, 484 open-web riveted girders, 490, 491 origin of, 12 percentage of details, 1227, 1239-1241 posts. Pratt, stress coefficients, 171 riveted, 31 rivets. simple, longest, 25 skew spans, 484-488 skid girder, 533 spacing of trusses, 483, 1638 span length, 468 splices. swing-spans, details of design for, 1691 top chord. triangular, stress coefficients, 172, 174 vertical end posts for through spans, 481, 486 Warren, stress coefficients, 172-174 web members. weights of metal. Trusses, types of, Burr, 19 double-intersection triangular, 468, 471 hybrid, 482 lattice, 474 with polygonal top chord, 468, 476 Long, 20 Murphy-Whipple, 23 Pratt, 468 radial, 468 single-intersection triangular, 468, 470, 471 subdivided triangular, 471 Truth, 1155 Tsinanfu (China) Bridge, 603 Tuileries Bridge, 12 Tullock, A. J., 770 Tunkhannock Creek Viaduct, 1169, 1171 Turnbuckles, nuts, threads, and washers, 1785 Turned bolts, 337, 1731, 1785 Turned-in flanges of channels, 339 Turning drill pipe, 1102 Turntable designing, 691 Twelfth Street Trafficway in Kansas City, 848, 865, 924, 936, 942, 1169 Twisted bars, 48 temperature stresses in, 212 Two-rivet connections, 276 Tyrone Bridge, 605 Tyrrell, Henry Grattan, 716 |