Title |
ABOUT |
CONTENTS |
GLOSSARY |

J.A.L. Waddell — INDEX — Bridge Engineering |

A |
B |
C |
D |
E |
F |
G |
H |
I |
J |
K |
L |
M |
N |
O |
P |
Q |
R |
S |
T |
U |
V |
W |
X |
Y |
Z |

## PPacific Coast cedar, 52 Pacific Highway Bridge at Portland, Oregon, 686, 723, 1174, 1175 long piles for, 1017 Packing on pins, 527, 529-531, 1682 Page and Shnable, 716 Paine, Thomas, 22 Paint and painting, 765-771, 1803 best qualities of, 771 consensus of opinion concerning, 767 decoration by, 1177 function of, 765 Goheen, 771 guaranteeing of, 771 inspection of, 1447, 1448 Johnson's Magnetic Iron Oxide, 770 light colors for bridge, 768 Lowe Brothers, 771 National Paint Company, 771 Nobrac, 771 shedding, 765 Sherwin and Williams, 771 Toch Brothers, 771 vehicle for, 766 Paint-skins, 51 Palacio, A. de, 671 Palladio, 12 Palmer, 15 Palmer, Timothy, 19 Panel lengths, 481 economic, 1187 skew bridges, 484-488 inferior span length for, 480 Paper, drawing, quality of, 1387 Papers, return of, 1882 Parabola of moments, 414-418, 440-443 Parapets, ties on, 361 Parent, 14 Parker, C. H., 24 Parsons, William Barclay, 558 Parthenon, 1153 Partial payments, 1885 to contractor, 1368 Partial splices, 532 Pasadena Arch Bridge, 1164 "Passing the dollar" in contracts, 1564 Patenting, 1621 royalties, 1755 Patent-plates, 1786 Paved floors, 1636 Paving, 1806 asphalt, 370, 1809, 1817 repairing, 1817 bitulithic, 370, 1823 brick, 370, 1825-1835 concrete, 370 curbs on embankments, 1837 drainage of, 1835, 1836 guarantee, 1816, 1839 macadam, 1837 pitch filler, 368, 1834 sand filler, 368 stone-block, 370 wood-block, 366-368 Payment clause in contracts, 1565 Payments, 1878, 1884 partial, to contractor, 1368 Pecos River Bridge failure, 1542 Pedestal piles, 1011 Pedestals, 1028 anchorages for, 1030 base castings for, 456 bases, 1685 batters for, 1028 elevated railroads, 562 elevation of, 278 footings, 1028 foundations, pressures on, 1030 hinging of, 539 position of, 1856 quantities for, 1300 trestles, 542 truss spans, 1680 volumes, 1301, 1311, 1312 Pegram, Geo. H., 477 Penalties, 1564 Pencilling, 1394 Penetration test for asphalt, 1818 Pennsylvania Railroad, lift bridges for, Calumet River, South Chicago, 734, 736 Pennsylvania Steel Company, 68 People, weight of, 108 Per diem fees, 1604 "Percentage Method of Performing Difficult Work," 1582 Percentage reports of work, 1486 Percentages of weights of details for trusses, 1227, 1239-1241 Percentages of weights of metal in swing spans compared with those of simple spans of same length, 1249 Percolation, 975 Permanency of channel, 1088 Permanent clauses, 1742 Permissible, loadings for piles, 1008, 1047 pressures on masonry, 265 pressures on soils, 964 variations in weight and gauge, 1779 working stresses, 255 Perronet, 14 Perry, 28 Petinot, 93 Petit truss, 25, 468, 469, 470 secondary stresses in, 194 cambering of, 758 Philbrick, 23 Phoenix column, 24 Phosphor bronze bushings, 337 Piers, 1020-1057 arch, quantities in, 1337, 1338, 1340 1341 arch-bridges, data for, 1339 bases, elevations of tops of, 1051 enlarging of, 971 piles in, 1050 braced steel, 1026 brick, 1022, 1861 concrete, 1022 coping of, 1024 open bracing for, 1056 telescoping of, 1026 designing, safety in, 972 details of, 1007 dumb-bell, 1023 finding position of, 1472-1475 founding of, on a thin crust, 970 hollow, 1024 impact on, 964 lengths of, 1022 locating, 1471 triangulation, 1464 masonry, 1020 proportioning of, 1020 mattresses, 1060 obstruction of channel by, 1121 pile, timber, 1057 pivot, 1024 platforms for construction work, 999 pneumatic-cylinder, 1056 position of, 1856 protection, 1866 mattresses for, 1028 proportioning for artistic effect, 1179 proportioning, ordinary method of, 1022 quantities for, 1300-1310 Red Rock Cantilever Bridge, 1022 rip-rap for, 996 classification of, 1020 batters of, 1051 methods of construction, 967 specifications for, 1045 steel shells for, 1025 timber, 1026 type, choice of, 969 Pier-sinking record, 1479 Pigment, coefficients of expansion, 765 excluder, 765 graphite, 766 shedding, 765 value of, 766 Pile clusters, 1011 Pile cut-off machine, origin of, 12 Pile driving, 1008, 1014, 1855 cost, 1011 East Omaha Bridge, 1016 obstacles in, 1018 overdriving, 1018 record, 1479 through clay, 1016 Pile dykes and mattress work, 1866-1868 Pile heads, encasing of, 968 Pile piers, timber, 1057 Pile trestles, 773 limiting heights of, 773 panel lengths of, 774 stringers of, 774 Piles, 1008 bases of piers, 1050 battered, 1011 bearing, 1008 brooming of, 1018 cast, 1012 concrete, 1012, 1856 creosoted, 775 creosoting of, 1013 decay of, 970 disc, 1012 driving of. durability of, 1013 dynamiting of, 1015 eccentric loads on, Eqs. 24 and 26, page 300 factor of safety for, 1010 falsework, number per bent, 1502 formulae, 1009 foundations, use of, 969 Fraser River bridges, 1017 grouping, 1013 inspection, 1450 lag, 1012 long piles driven by water jet, 1017 materials for, 1011 Pacific Highway Bridge, Portland, 1017 pedestal, 1011 permissible loads on, 1008, 1047 poured, 1013 premoulded, 1012 protection of, 1014 rejection of, 1008 resisting horizontal pressures, 1010 retaining walls or abutments, 1042 screw, 1012 spacing, 1013 steel, 1013 test, 1009 types of, 1011 wattled, 1063 wooden, 1855 Pin-connected trusses, highway spans, 1683 old type, advantages and disadvantages of, 748 origin of, 23 railway spans, 1681 wearing of joints in, 749, 750 Pin connections, abandoning of, 30 Pin-holes, 1785 half, 335 net sections at, 1682 Pin-plates, 531, 1682 Pine, long-leaf yellow, 52 short-leaf yellow, 52 Pinions, 1727 rack, for swing spans, 1724 Pins, 1682, 1779 bearing, intensities for, 264, 323 bending, intensities for, 264, 324 bending moments on, 324, 1658 designing of truss pins, 530, 531 diameters, 531 eccentricity of chord pins, 340 effect of on secondary stresses, 200 nickel steel, bending intensities for, 324 pedestal pins, location of, 284 shear on, 264, 1658 Pipe, boring, measurements of, 1103 carrying of on movable span, 1076 casing, 1097 cutting of, 1100 dynamiting of, 1098 maintenance of, 1752 pulling of, 1098 purchasing of, 1100 Pipe-line for fire protection, 1844-1846 filler, 368 Pitch-diameters for gears, 314-321 Pitch for gears, 337 Pitches of rivets, plate-girder flanges, 432-441 component parts of flanges, 437-438 curved flanges, 437 inclined flanges, 433-436 variation throughout girder, 438-441 vertical loads, 437-438 Pittsburg Testing Laboratory, 1412 Pivot piers, 1024 drainage of, 697 quantities for, 1300 Pivots for center-bearing swing spans, 1716 Placing concrete, 1853, 1854 Placing reinforcing bars, 1865 Planing, 328 sheared edges, 328 Plans, alteration of, 1762 Plant, bidders', 1878 contractor's, 1768 report on, 1488 seizing of contractor's, 1616 Plaster, 51 Plastering faces of piers, 1044 Plate-and-shape nickel steel, 61, 93 Plate, tin, 50 Plate, 47, 1777 bending of, 331 buckled, 47 checkered, 374 connecting, strength of, 284 corrugated, 47 extra cost of wide, 327 trough, 47 Plate-girders and plate-girder bridges, 408, 418 advantages of, 408 calculations, 411. cast shoes, 454 comparison with truss spans and I-beam spans, 408-410 compression flanges, proportioning of, 431 continuous girders, 418, 419, 444 cover-plates, centres of gravity of flanges, 427 flange sections, 422-428 full-length plates, need for, 428 lengths, determination of, 440-444 rivet heads, undesirability of, 428 rivet pitches, 437 weights, 426 crimping of stiffening angles for, 1203 curved flanges, rivet pitches in, 437 definition, 411 depths, limiting and economic, 419, 420 designing and detailing. bridges, details of design, 1668-1671 doubling-up of old spans, 1528 durability, 408 economics, 409, 410, 1184, 1185 end bearing, 452-460 end details, 444-447, 464, 467 end stiffening angles, 446 essential elements, 411 flanges, calculation of, 432 cover-plate lengths, 440-444 make-up of sections, 422-430 cover-plates, 422-428 rivet pitches, 432-441 section, determination of, 433 splices, 421 stringers, 328 unsupported lengths, 431-432 full splicing, 409 grillages, 459 half-through railway, economics, 410 laterals, 392-397 lengths of cover-plates, 440 limiting lengths, 409 moment, figuring of, 412-418 moment diagram, 414-418 origin, 23 parabola of moment, 414-418 reactions, 412-418 rivet connections, 445 rivet pitch. rocker ends, 453 shears, 412-418 shipment, 409 shoes, 452-460. side plates, 437 sliding bearings, 458 spacing of girders, 409 splices in flanges, 421 splicing of webs, 301, 420, 447-452 stiffeners, 421, 1203, 1670 strap plates for splicing, 449 swing spans, details of design for, 1690, 1691 through, 465 laterals for, 394 web-plate, depths, limiting and economic, 419, 420 design, 419-421 design, 450-452 types, comparison of, 447-449 weights of metal, 1221, 1222, 1250 Plate-lattice-girder spans, 411 Platforms, 1841 around pier, 999 locations on elevated railroads, 549 Pneumatic caissons, 1857 details of, 1007 founding of, 971 Pneumatic cylinder piers, 1056 Pneumatic gun, 1023 distinctive features of, 998, 999 Pockets, expansion, 377, 1685 Pockets of caissons, 989 Poetsch, Dr. F. H., 972 freezing process, 972 Pointing masonry, 1529, 1864 Points of contraflexure in columns, 294 Polygonal top chords, 479, 480, 487, 488 analytic method of computing stresses in trusses with, 159 skew spans, 487 Pons AEmilius, 9 Pons Fabricius, 10 Pons Milvius, 9 Pons Salarius, 9 Pons Sublicius, 6 Pont du Gard Aqueduct, 10 Ponte Molle, 10 Ponte Quattro-Capi, 10 Ponte Rotto, 9 origin of, 11 Ponts et Chaussées, establishment of École des, 14 Pony trusses, 281, 468, 479, 490 Pooling, abolition of, 1535 Pooling of competitors, 1533, 1534 Pope, Thomas, 20 Portage viaduct, 27 Portal bracing, 293, 402, 403, 1642, 1643 connections, 506 Portland, Oregon, Bridge, foundations of, 983 Position, gradient, and alignment, 1765 Position of caissons during sinking, 994, 1001, 1472-1475 Position of critical section for pure shear and diagonal tension in beams, 836 Position of movable span as affecting layout, 1211 Position of piers, pedestals, and abutments, 1856 "Possibilities in Bridge Construction by the Use of High Alloy Steels," 70, 78, 1284 Posts of trusses, sections for, 1675, 1681 Posts, (vertical) end, 481 Pot holes, 1061 Poughkeepsie Bridge, 568, 588, 600 Poured piles, 1013 Pouring of slabs, 952 Power, bascule spans, 1701 equipment, 1702-1708 installation for movable spans, 677 lift spans, 1700 movable spans, 678, 1697-1701 swing spans, 1698-1700 Pratt, Caleb and Thomas W., 15, 21 Pratt truss, 468 stress coefficients, 171 Preambles for contracts, 1560, 1562 Precipitation formula, 1118 Precision in specifications, 1555 Preliminary investigations, 1082 Preliminary surveys, 1088, 1091 Premoulded piles, 1012 Preparing and placing reinforcing bars, 1865 Preservation of timber, 1805 ties, 361 Pressures, bases of bridge piers, 964 masonry, permissible, 265 masonry, unit, 1657 pedestal foundations, 1030 soils, 964 Prices of materials, 1354, 1355, 1359, 1360, 1757 Prices of metal, 1202 Priming coat of paint, 766 "Principal Professional Papers," 99 Principle of least work, 214 Principles in detailing the outlines of spans for aesthetic design, 1175 Principles of design, 1662-1665 Probability of scour, determination of, 969 Procurable lengths, 510 Profit-sharing with assistants, 1609 Progress charts, 1486 Progress, rate of, 1876 Progress records, graphic method of making, 1489 Projects, chimerical, 1624 classification of, 1592 electric railway bridges, 1592 option required by bankers on, 1597 pedestrian bridges, 1593 promotion of, 1591 rejection of by bankers, 1597 speculative, 1624 steam-railway bridges, 1592 steps in promotion of, 1593, 1594 wagon bridges, 1592 Promises of stock, 1600 Promoters, 1591 negotiating with, 1606, 1607 Promoting by engineers, 1598, 1599 Promotion, bridge projects, 1591 fees, 1607 necessity for secrecy in, 1599 steps to be taken in, 1593, 1594 Property considerations as affecting layout, 1213 Proportion of parts, 1160 Proportioning, compression members, 492 flanges of plate-girders, 421-432 piers, 1022 Proportions for concrete, 1852 Proposal, form of, 1880 Protection, banks, 1866 East Omaha Bridge, 1063 curbs, 374 draw bridges, 779-782 omission of, 779 failing masonry, 1529 piers, 1060, 1866 piers for through spans, 364 piles, 1014 Prospectus, how to write a, 1595 Prospectus, requisites for, 1594, 1595 Pryor, J. H., 1031 Public office, holding by engineers, 1631 Puddled clay for borings, 1098 Puddle wall, 974 Pulling pipe, 1098 Pulsometers, 979 Pumping out of caissons and cofferdams, 978, 995 Pumps for cofferdams, 979 Punches and dies, sizes of, 1422 Punches, multiple, 328 Punching, 1422, 1782 Purchases for office, 1389 Purchasing of pipe, 1100 Purified steel, 72 excess cost of, 73 possibilities of, 76 weights of bridges of, 73 |