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J.A.L. Waddell — INDEX — Bridge Engineering |

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## CCables, cradling of, 21 electric, 1795 lift span, 1718, 1719 operating, 1725 rise, economic, 656 steel, weights of, 96 supply, for swing spans, 1706 wire. Caesar's bridge over the Rhine, 6 Caissons, battered sides for, 987 blasting foundations for, 983 blowing of, 1001 blowing out materials from, 1000 bracing for, 1049 building up of, 1001 cross-sections of, 986 docks for, 994 dynamiting of, 993 ejecting material from, 999 faces of wells for, 987 false bottoms for, 994 filling of, 995 flaring sides of, 1001 hanging of, 996 holding in position of, 994 inspection of, 1449 jetting pipes for, 990 keeping in correct position, 1001 launching of, 999 logs in, 995 open-dredging, 1858 origin of, 12 pneumatic, 1857 details of, 1007 founding of, 971 pockets in, 989 pumping out of, 995 reinforced concrete, 986 righting of, 997 side friction on, 996 sinking of, through boulders, 992 steel, 990 timber, framing of, 989 wooden, designing of, 1004 Calculations. accuracy of, 1377 approximate method for arches, 868 data for, 1373 files, 1408 filing of, 1386 making and checking of, 1371, 1373, 1378, 1389 plate-girder spans. sheet, form of, 1374, 1375 time-record for, 1407 Calumet River Vertical Lift Bridge for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry. Co., at South Chicago, Ill.,734, 736, 737 Camber, 751-764, 1644, 1784 approximate method, 756, 757, 758 arch spans, 752 bascule bridges, 753 cantilever bridges, 752, 759, 760 curve, form of, 759 dapping ties for, 359, 751, 752 half-dapping, 752 dimensioning for, 751-764 Petit trusses, 758 pin-connected trusses, 755, 756 plate girders, 329, 332, 753, 754 reason for, 751 reinforced-concrete bridges, 753 riveted trusses, 755 semi-cantilevers, 759 simple truss spans, 754-759 steel arches, 760 towers of vertical lift spans, 762, 763, 764 trusses, 333 vertical lift bridges, 753, 761 Cambridge Arch Bridge, New Zealand, 630, 638 Camel-back truss, 468, 477, 478 Campbell, C. E. H., 1016 Canfield, August, 22 Canso Bridge design, 1160 Cantilever arch, 632, 633, 636 Cantilever beams, 379, 380, 436 bracing bottom flange, 382 designing of, 922 flanges, design of, 380-382 milling, 382 temporary omission of, 1073, 1204 thrust angles, 380 Cantilever bridges, 568-616 American, origin of, 25 anchor arms, attachment of, 614 anchorage details for, 579 artistic effect in, 573 Canso, Strait of, design of proposed bridge for, 593 Chinese, 7 combination of stresses in, 572 comparative rigidity of, 569 conditions suitable for, 568 connections for suspended span of, 611, 612 curvature of chords for, 589 detailing of, 611 determination of equivalent live loads for, 572 economic comparison with suspension bridges, 1206, 1207 economic lengths, anchor arm, 1199 anchor span, 1200 suspended span, 581, 1198 economics of, 569, 570, 580, 581, 585, 591, 1198 comparison with simple trusses, 1200 erection stresses in, 573 final connections of, 580 heights of posts for, 589 Hindoo, 7 idle members in, omission of, 577, 579 impact for, 572 increasing widths of, 573 intermediate trusses for, 590 layouts for, 585 legitimate economies in, 589, 590 longest spans of, 25 Mayarí steel for, 71 minimum widths for, 570 Nippon Railway of Japan, 574, 576 North River, proposed, 592 origin of, 6 piers or pedestals for, 590 rollers for main bearings of, 614 Strait of Canso, proposed, 593 stresses in, 572 suitable conditions for, 568 suspenders in, 577 truss depths for, 589 Type A, 587, 1271-1273, 1275 Type B, 588, 589, 1271, 1277-1279 Type C, 588, 1271, 1280-1282 economics of, 592 Type D, 589, 1271, 1283-1285 Wandipore, Tibet, 7 weights of metal in, 581-587, 1271-1285 anchor spans of, 584 anchorages of, 584 piers in, 584 Cantilever draw spans, 665, 666 Cantilevering during erection, 31, 574, 575, 577, 1503, 1504 Cantilevering of floors, 483 Cantilever plate-girders, 418, 444, 1672 Cantilever retaining walls, 1037 Cantilevers for train-sheds, 569 Cantilevers for work-shop trusses, 569 Capital stock, amount of, 1598 Capitol Avenue Bridge in Indianapolis, 1169 Car, overhang of, 148 tilting of, 148 Caravan Bridge over the River Meles, 5 Carbon content in steel, 46 Carbon steel, 45 requirements for, 1770 Carbon-vanadium steel, 84 Care of finished concrete, 952 Carpenter, Mr., 61 Carrying capacities of soils, 964 Carrying of water-pipes, 1076, 1843 Carrying trains, falsework for, 1849 Carroll, Howard, 23 Cartage, 1766 Cartlidge, C. H., , 667 Casing pipe, 1097 Casino for Havana Harbor Bridge, 1077 Cast bases for columns, 340 Cast iron, 337 barring out of, 340 bridges, 16 Cast piles, 1012 Cast shoes, 533 plate-girders, 454 Cast steel, , 337 Castings, 334 annealing of, 338 iron, 1777 steel, 1777 Catalogue file, 1411 Catch-basins, 1835 Catching washed-out material of borings, 1102 Cattle, weight of, 117 Caving of banks, 1059 Cedar, Pacific Coast, 52 Cellular fascines, 1061 Cement, American, 55 asphalt, 1812 foreign, 55 inspection, 1449, 1452 necessity for testing, 56 reports, 1487 Roman, 55 Rosendale, 55 specifications for, 1849, 1850, 1851 testing at manufactory, 1470 Centering castings, 1723 Centering for arches, 1502 Centre-bearing swing-spans, 1695 centre wedges for, 1717 distribution of load on, 687 pivot, tracks, rack, and rollers, 1716 reactions for, 691 supporting of, 696 Centre-castings for rim-bearing swing-spans, 1715 Centre line of arch-rib, determination of, 863 Centres, arch, 1769 Centres of gravity, angles, 424 plate-girder flanges, 427 Centrifugal force, 132, 133, 135 loads, 956, 1654 point of application of, 136 Centrifugal pumps, 979 Cernavoda (Roumania) Bridge, 600 Chalfant, A. G., 596 Changes, 1762 cost of and reasons for, 1081 contracts, 1885 grade on structure, 356 grades, 374, 1748 plans, 1554 temperature, effects of, 1654 reinforced-concrete bridges, 957 tracings, 1385 Channels, 47 built, 495 rolled, 493-495 turned-in flanges of, 339 Channels of streams, curvature, 1058 obstruction due to piers, 1121 shifting, as affecting layout, 1215 straightness, narrowness, and permanency of, 1090 Charges for inspecting bridges, 1519, 1520 schedules of, 1602, 1603, 1604 Charleston, W. Va., Bridge failure, 1545 Charts of progress, 1486 Check, deposit, 1881 Checkered plates, 374 Checker's duties, 1392 Checking, calculations, 1371, 1378 drawings, 1382, 1383, 1384, 1395 estimates, 1361 finished design, 280 materials, 1477 shop drawings, 1385, 1396, 1398, 1462, 1411 triangulation work, 1462 Checking-prints, 1395 filing of, 1410 Chester, Mass., Bridge failure, 1543 Chezy formula, 1121 C. B. &. Q. Ry. formula, 1115 Chicago-City-type bascule, 708, 709, 715 Chico cantilever in Mexico, 1068 Chief designer's duties, 1389 Chief draftsman's duties, 1391, 1393 Chinese arches, 9 Choice of type for piers, 969 Chords, bottom, sections of, , 497 curvature of track, effect of, 145 deformation of, 208 heating of, 212 packing, 1682 pins, eccentricity of, 340 sections, 333, 492, 493, 501, 530, 1675, 1681 splices, location of, 510 top chords, 498-500 trusses, 383, 501, 530, 1675, 1681 Chrome-nickel steel, 58 Chrome-vanadium steel for rivets, 84 Chromium in steel, 84 Cincinnati-Newport Bridge, 605, 606 Cinders, 54 Cisco arch cantilevering, 1504, 1505, 1506 City Waterway Bridge, Tacoma, 734, 735, 1075 Clam shell dredges, 992 Clarke, Reeves & Co., 29 Classes of floor systems, 346 Classes of traffic and provision therefor, 341 Classification, bridges in general, 1632 highway bridges, 1632 reinforced-concrete bridges, 953 Clause index of Chapter LXXVIII, 1735 Clause index of Chapter LXXIX, 1887 Clauses (variable, incomplete, and permanent) in specifications, 1742 Claw couplings, 1729, 1730 Clay, borings in, 1103 pile-driving in, 1016 puddle for borings, 1098 sinking piers in, 993, 995, 1000 Clay-centered arch-rings, 1537 Cleaning drawings, 1387 Cleaning of metalwork, 767, 768 Clear headway requirements of War Department, 1143 between spans, 337 curves, 1638 highway bridges, 1639 packing, 276 railway bridges, 483, 484, 1638 skew bridges on curves, 147 square bridges on curves, 147 Clips, 366 Cluster piles, 1011 Clutches, friction, 1730 Coalbrookdale Bridge, 16 Coal-tar paving-pitch filler, 1834 Cochrane, V. H., 127, 296, 963 Code of ethics, 1631 Coefficients of elasticity for concrete and stone, 959 bracing of, 975 collapsing of, 979 cost of, 979 flooding of, 979 freezing process, 977 leaks in, stopping of, 976 locations for, 973 movable, 978 percolation through, 975 pumping out of, 978 reinforced-concrete, 977 removable, 990 seepage through, 975 selection of type of, 974, 980 types of, 973 waling for, 975 work, 1859 Coignet, Frangois, 18 Colby & Christie, 1412 Colby & Christie's handbook, 1431 Cold-rolled shafting, 337 Collapsing of cofferdams, 979 Collars, 1730 Collection of data, 1082 Collingwood, Francis, 662 Colorado River Bridge at Austin, Texas, 1164 Colossus Bridge, Philadelphia, 20 Columbia River Bridge at Trail, 736, 1026 Column, anchorage, 278, 304-309, 1643, 1644 batter, 1684 beam action of, 278 cast bases for, 340 compression tests on, 259 contraflexure, point of, 294 details, 1684 disposition, 277 feet, filling of, 1840 footings, calculation of stresses in, 857 designing of, 936 quantities of materials in, 1325, 1328 forked ends of, 285 formulae, origin of, 14 moments of inertia of, 841 overturning moment on bases, 304-309 point of contraflexure, 294 reinforced-concrete, designing of, 936 quantities of materials in, 1325, 1326, 1327 spacing, economics of, 1194 splicing, 338 towers, batter for, 540 trestles, stresses in, 1659 unit stresses, 322 unsupported lengths of, 960 viaduct, tops of, 339 Combinations of stresses, 250, 1376, 1658, 1659 bending and direct stresses, 251 steel trestles, 250 swing-spans, 1689, 1690 Combined bridges, 341 classes of, 342 economy in designing, 344 Commencement of fieldwork, notice of, 1768 Commercial influences as affecting layout, 1213 Common sense in interpreting specifications, 1556 Compacting of soil, 1008 Comparison of designs, economic, 1182 Comparison of high and low bridges, 663 Comparison of pneumatic and open-dredging processes, 1074 Compensating trusses, 647 Compensation in securities, 1607 Competition, 29 for engineering work, 1620 unprofessional, 1601 Competitive bids, 40 designs, effects of, 283 plans, 1626 Competitors, pooling of, 1533, 1534 Completion of contract, delays in, 1884 estimates of time for, 1363 time of, 1875 Compound interest, 1363, 1364 Compound webs, 500 Compression chords, splices in, 292 Compression flanges of plate-girders, proportioning of, 431 Compression members, distribution of metal in, 274, 492 intensities of working stresses for, 259, 310
proportioning of, 492-505 thickness of web-plates, 1677 Compression and shear in reinforced-concrete beams and slabs, 1657 Compression stresses, 178 Compression tests for concrete, 946 Compression tests on columns, 259 Compressive strength of concrete, 957 Compromise Standard System of Live Loads for Railroad Bridges, 99 Computation of stresses, concentrated-wheel-load method for, 160, 161 Concentrated loads, plate-girder spans, shears, moments, and reaction, 414, 416, 417, 418 reinforced-concrete slabs, distribution over, 852 Concentrated-wheel-load method of stress computation, 160, 161 Concrete, abrasion of, 1024 application to American bridgework, 28 base for paving, 368 caissons, advantages of, 1004, 1005 camber for bridges, 753 cinders for, 54 compression tests for, 946 compressive strength of, 957 construction, inspection of, 951 construction work, 946-953 continuity of operation in placing, 1855 cost of cubic yard, 1354-1360 dry surfaces in, 1854 encasing of metal, 769 estimating, 1354-1360 hand-mixing of, 1854 heating materials for, 1044 inspection, 1449 intensities of working stresses for, 958, 959 minimum thickness of, 962 mixing and placing of, 951, 1043, 1853 pavement, 370 piers, coping of, 1024 piles, 1012, 1191, 1856 proportions, 1852 reinforced. application to American bridgework, 28 origin of, 17 removal of forms from, 952 revetment, 1062 salt in, 1044 salt water for, 1044 shafts, designing of, 1024 sidewalks, 1836 specifications for, 1851-1854 stone, 53 impurities in, 53 testing, 1468 testing of hardness of, 953 weights of, 95 Concreting in freezing weather, 951 Concreting of arch ribs, 952 Condemnation of old bridges, 1519 Conduits and gas pipes for lighting systems, 1842 Congress Street Bridge at Troy, N. Y., 493 Conjugate pressures, 1032 Connecting plates, strength of, 284 Connecting trestle towers by girders, 538, 539 Connection angles, floor-beams, 378 plate-girders, 444-446 stringers, 376 wide-legged, 209 Connection at cantilever arm for transmission of wind loads, 611, 613 Connections, reaming of, 1783 Connel Ferry Bridge (Scotland), 603 Conoid of pressure, 1011 Consent of surety, 1885 Considerations in contracts, 1563, 1564 Considère, 18 Construction, administration of, 1582 engineering of, 1466 facilities as affecting layout, 1216 joints in reinforced-concrete bridges, 950
records, filing of, 1410 reinforced-concrete bridges, 946-953 tramways, 999 Consulting bridge engineers, 39 Contingencies, 1349 allowance for, 1599, 1600 Continuity of operation in placing concrete, 1855 Continuity of stringers, 210 Continuous girders and trusses, 482 moment coefficients for, 845 spans, 1643 stresses in, 850 truss bridges, 25 Contract, 1557 abrogation of, 1565 agents, 1562 alterations or changes in, 1885 arbitration in, 1566 assigning or subletting of, 1566, 1882 author's form of, 1568, 1569, 1570 award of, 1881 bond in, 1566, 1567 changes in, 1565, 1566 clause for extra payments in, 1565 considerations in, 1563, 1564 corrections in, 1570, 1571 dating of, 1562, 1567, 1886 delays in completion of, 1884 description of parties to, 1560, 1561 duration of, 1563 effect of war upon, 1562 erasures in, 1570 essential elements of, 1558, 1559 executed, 1565 extra payment, clause for, 1565 forecasting eventualities for, 1564 form of, 1568, 1569, 1570, 1883 importance of drafting proper, 1557, 1558 letting "get cold," 1571 liquidated damages in, 1564 manifolding of, 1571 opening clauses for, 1559, 1560 parties to, description of, 1560, 1561 "passing the dollar" in, 1564 payment clause of, 1565 penalties, 1564 preambles for, 1560, 1562 promises in, 1563 scope of, 1869, 1870 signatures to, 1567 submission to lawyer for final approval, 1571 Sunday illegal, 1571 U. S. Government, 1562 witnesses to, 1567, 1568 Contraction and expansion, 275 Contractor, 1707 directions to, 1765 duties defined, 1553 incompetent, 1615, 1616 plant, 1616, 1768 rights, 1615 risk, 1766 warning, 1615 work, other, 1765 Contraflexure, point of, in columns, 294 Controllers, 1703, 1794 Conversion of a simple span-bridge into a cantilever structure, 1079 Cooper, Theodore, 29, 98, 269, 634, 662 concrete piers, 1024 quantities for, 1300 Coping of stringers, 375 Copper, 50 nickel steel, 68 Corbeled arches, origin of, 7 Cord, Mr., 17 Core drilling, 1094 equipment for, 1098 Corner brackets, 340 Cornwall, Ontario, Bridge failure, 1544 Corrections, contracts, 1570, 1571 errors of connections, 1849 secondary stresses, 1784 triangulation angles, 1461 Correspondence, 1388 field, 1479 files, 1411 Corrosion, provision for, 256 steel in salt water, 986 Corrugated bars, 48 Corrugated plates, 47 Corthell, Dr. E. L., 965 Cost, equivalent total first, 1182 Cost plus a lump sum, 1582, 1584 Cost plus a percentage, 1582 Costs. abutments, plain concrete railway, 1199 alloy steel, 65, 66, 76, 77, 81, 83, 85, 87 borings, paying for, 1604 cofferdams, 979 draw protection, 779 driving piles, 1019 embankments, railway, 1195, 1196 making borings, 1099 materials in place, 1354, 1355, 1359, 1360 power, equipment, movable bridges, 681 sinking piers, 982 swing spans, 698 trestles, 777 vanadium steel bridges, 85 wooden trestles, 1197, 1198 Coulomb, 14 Coulomb formula, 1033 Counterbalancing chains for vertical lift bridges, 772 Counterbracing, 1641, 1642 Counterforted retaining walls, 1037 loads on base slabs of, 1039 loads on counterforts of, 1041 Counterforts, reinforcing of, 1040 spacing of, 1042 Counters for truss spans, 1683 Countersinking ties for hook bolts, 366 Counter system, excess loads for, 1658 Counterweight and operating ropes and their attachments, 1718, 1789, 1790, 1791 Counterweights, 1732, 1792 Couplings, 1101, 1729, 1730 Court settlement, 1617 Cover-plates for plate-girder flanges, centres of gravity of flanges, 427 flange sections, 422-428 full-length plates, need for, 428 lengths, determination of, 440-444 rivet heads in, undesirability of, 428 rivet pitches, 437 weights, 426 Cover-plates for truss members, 274, 428 compression members thicknesses of, 1677 widths of, 498 Covers for machinery, 1731 Cowing bascule, 712 Cradling of cables, 21 Crane in machinery house, 1734, 1802 Creosoted timber, 775 block paving, 1806 weights of 95 bracing for, 1049 reinforced-concrete, 974 timbers, 1048 Crimping, 332 stiffening angles, 328, 421, 1203 Criterion, economics of bridge layouts, 1189 maximum bending moment, 164 Critical section for pure shear and diagonal tension in beams, positions of, 836 Critical velocity, 1127 Criticizing another engineer's work, 1621 Cross-dykes, 1061 Cross-frames near expansion pockets, 398 viaducts, 338 Cross-girders, plate-girder spans, 1669, 1672 truss spans, 1677 Crossings, right-angled, 1090 Crown hinge for arch bridge, 646 Crowning of roadways, 372, 373 Culverts, 1043, 1864 Curbs on embankments, 1837 Current measurements, 1148 Current meters, 1148 Curvature of channel, 1058 Curvature of top chords, 480, 1176 Curvature of track adjustment of track for, 138 clearance diagrams for, 147 effects of, 132 chords, 145 deck spans, 144 floor-beams, 141 equalizing stresses for, 146 reversion of, 133 Curved approaches, 1091 Curved flanges of plate-girders, 437 Curved members, 272 top chords, 479, 480, 487, 488 trusses, 1071 Curves, clearances on, 1638 Curves on approaches, 1212 Curves, reverse, 1212 Cushions for wood-block pavements, 368, 369 Customs duties, 1755 Cut spikes, 362 Cuts, beveled, 328 Cutting of pipe, 1100 Cutting rates, 1605 Cylinder piers, 1025, 1026, 1054, 1056 strengthening of, 1530 telescoping of, 1026 Cypress, 52 |